James Stachecki, Ph.D. founder of I.C.E. LLC has worked in the cryopreservation field for over 20 years. He pioneered the use of choline chloride as a substitute for sodium chloride for slow-cooling oocytes. In 1998 he received the general prize paper award at the ASRM annual meeting for his work vitrifying human oocytes. A year later was granted a US patent for his choline-based freezing medium. Almost 11 years ago he developed a vitrification system for blastocysts that was DMSO-free and used conventional cryo-straws. This large-volume system was markedly different that the DMSO/EG micro-volume system being developed around the same time. A similar large-volume system was later developed for oocytes and cleavage-stage embryos. Today, these systems have grown in popularity because of their simplicity, cost effectiveness, and their success (ie. clinical pregnancy rate). Originally the system was called "S3" or S3. This stood for "Simple, Safe, and Successful". We have modified and improved the formulation and protocols to such a degree that we feel a new name is appropriate. Although the basic concepts are the same, overall, it is a much better system than the one published just 5 years ago. The system is now called "ICE Vitrification". We are always trying to improve this already successful system, in hopes of increasing survival and pregnancy rates so that all clinics using the system will achieve results similar to their fresh/nonfrozen embryo transfer rates. Currently we are working at a better system for cryopreserving sperm and ovarian tissue.