Analytical chemistry methods used to separate, identify, and quantify matter. In practice separation, identification or quantification may possibly constitute the complete analysis or be mutual with another method. Separation isolates analyses. The qualitative analysis identifies analyses, while quantitative analysis determines the numerical amount or concentration.
Analytical chemistry comprises of classical, wet chemical methods and modern, instrumental methods. Classical qualitative methods use separations such as precipitation, extraction, and distillation. Identification may be founded on differences in color, odor, melting point, boiling point, radioactivity or reactivity. The Classical quantitative analysis uses mass or volume changes to quantify the amount. Instrumental methods may be used to separate samples using chromatography, electrophoresis or field flow fractionation. The qualitative and quantitative analysis can be performed, frequently with the same instrument and might use light interaction, heat interaction, electric fields or magnetic fields. Often the same instrument can separate, identify and quantify an analyte.
Analytical chemistry is also focused on improvements in experimental design, chemometrics, and the creation of new measurement tools. Analytical chemistry has widespread applications in forensics, medicine, science, and engineering.
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1. Qualitative Analysis
A qualitative analysis determines the presence or absence of a specific compound, but not the mass or concentration. By meaning, qualitative analyses do not measure quantity.
2. Quantitative Analysis
Quantitative analysis is the measurement of the quantities of specific chemical constituents present in a substance.
3. Gravimetric Analysis
The gravimetric analysis includes determining the amount of material present by weighing the sample before or after some transformation.
4. Volumetric Analysis
The volumetric analysis involves the addition of a reactant to a solution being analyzed until some equivalence point is reached.
5. Instrumental Methods
Even though modern analytical chemistry is dominated by sophisticated instrumentation, the origin of analytical chemistry and some of the principles used in current instruments are from traditional techniques many of which are still used today
The main study of Spectroscopy is the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation. Traditionally, spectroscopy originated through the study of visible light dispersed according to its wavelength by a prism.
7. Mass Spectroscopy
The process involved in the Mass spectrometry is that measures the mass-to-charge ratio of charged particles, and used to find out the mass of particles and the basic chemicals present in given sample or molecule. And it also finds the chemical structures of molecules, such as peptides and other chemical compounds.
8. Electrochemical Analysis
Electrochemical techniques measure the potential (volts) or current (amps) in an electrochemical cell containing the analyte.
9. Chromatographic Methods
Chromatography is a laboratory procedure for the separation of the given mixture. The mixture is dissolved in a fluid called the mobile phase, which carries it through a structure holding another material called the stationary phase.
10. Quality Assurance
Quality assurance is an approach to preventing mistakes or defects in manufactured products and avoiding problems when delivering solutions or services to customers.
11. Quality Control
Quality control is a process by which entities review the quality of all factors involved in a production.
12. Forensic Chemistry
Forensic chemistry is the subfield of chemistry, forensic toxicology, in a legal setting. A forensic chemist can assist in the identification of unknown materials found at a crime scene Specialists in this area have a wide array of methods and instruments to help identify new substances. These include high-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, atomic absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thin layer chromatography.
13. Clinical Analysis
The clinical analysis is also known as chemical pathology, clinical biochemistry or medical biochemistry. Clinical analysis is the area of chemistry that is generally concerned with an analysis of bodily fluids for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. It is an applied form of biochemistry.
14. Environmental Analysis
Environmental analysis is done by the use of analytical chemistry and additional techniques to study the environment. The determination of this is common to monitor and study levels of pollutants in the atmosphere
15. Micro Analysis
Microanalysis is also known as chemical identification or quantitative analysis of very small quantities of chemical substances, generally less than 10 mg and the materials which contain very small surfaces.
16. Material Analysis
Analysis of the material is essential to characterize and estimate the quality and performance of materials. It supports innovation in industries such as engineering and manufacturing. Materials such as polymers, plastics, composites, metals, alloys, ceramics, paper, and board have diverse properties that impact performance; therefore an understanding of your material’s properties is needed to determine whether material or product is suitable for its intended use.
17. Chemical Kinetics
Chemical kinetics is the study of rates of chemical processes. And it also named as reaction kinetics Chemical kinetics contains investigations of how different experimental conditions can impact the speed of a chemical reaction and yield information about the reaction's mechanism and transition states, as well as the construction of mathematical models that can define the characteristics of a chemical reaction.
Crystallography is also known as the natural science with the range of investigating the matter in the crystalline state. These mainly involve determining the arrangement of atoms in crystals and also understand the crystal structure, Obtaining information about the spatial arrangement of atoms requires the use of the radiation with shorter wavelengths.