Scientific Program

Day 1

KEYNOTE SPEAKERS
  • Repurposing common non-steroidal anti inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) could potentially reverse intrinsic antimicrobial resistance in TB

    University of London
    Botswana
    Biography

    Sanjib Bhakta is a world-leading TB-expert and Academic Head of the ISMBMycobacteria Research Laboratory at the Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology. His continued research interest in global infectious diseases (funded by Wellcome Trust, Research Council-UK, EU and International Newton Fund) is focused on developing novel therapeutics as well as repurposing existing drugs to tackle antimicrobial resistance and persistence in TB. He has published around 100 original research articles for a number of internationally acclaimed journals viz. J. Exp. Med., J. Biol. Chem., Tuberculosis, Biochemical Journal, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, FEBS J, Molecular Microbiology, British Medical Journal, British Medical Bulletin, PLOS and Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. As a UK-STEM Ambassador and BSAC-Antibiotic Action Champion, he has volunteered on the Wellcome Trust/Research Council-UK funded program “Researchers in Residence” at local schools in London and has contributed to British Museum science program “News & Views”.

    Abstract

    Aims: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs),successfully used against a range of human and animal illnesses, were reported to display antibiotic action against replicating, non-replicating and multi-drug-resistant clinical isolates of the tuberculosis (TB)-causing dreadful bacterial pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In this project, we have extended our investigation on NSAIDs anti-tubercular specific endogenous mode(s) and mechanism(s) of action. Results: Interdisciplinary research methods were used to achieve the objectives of this project. The most potent NSAID so far, at sub-inhibitory concentrations, inhibited whole-cell efflux pumps activity at par with/better than potent efflux pump inhibitors such as verapamil and chlorpromazine. In addition, the NSAID inhibited mycobacterial biofilm formation significantly. Analysis of the extracellular polymeric substances of treated biofilm showed macromolecular alterations compared to the untreated controls. Furthermore,transcriptomic analysis revealed modulation of key metabolic pathways in NSAID-treated M. tuberculosis revealing novel endogenous targets of the drug. Conclusions: NSAIDs have the potential to reverse antimicrobial resistance by inhibiting efflux pumps and biofilm formation. Significance: The exponential increase of antimicrobial resistance in TB has led to an insurmountable economic and scientific challenge worldwide. Drug repurposing offers a direct route to phase III clinical trials, thereby reducing the investment of time and finances. The over-the-counter immunomodulatory drug’s new antibiotic action has paved an alternative route for tackling antimicrobial resistance in TB.

  • Phylogeonography and molecular characterization of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus in Kuwait

    Kuwait Institute for scientific research
    Kuwait
    Biography

    E Al-Ali obtained her BSc in 1993 from Kuwait University, worked for Kuwait University as Research Assistant, and then joined KISR on October 5, 1993 and led six projects. She has published more than 25 papers in reputed journals and international conferences. Her field of experience is in plant virus detection, primer design, cloning and sequencing, ELISA, DNA Extraction, PCR Amplification, RCA Rolling Circle Amplification, TYLCV detection on tomatoes. She was also trained twice in the University of Wisconsin Madison under the supervision of Prof. Amy Charkowski as well as University of Washington state under supervision of Prof. Hanu Pappu.

    Abstract

    Tomato is one of the most important vegetables cultivated in the world, and is a critical component of nutritional security. Tomato crops in Kuwait are frequently infected with viruses, causing considerable losses, and dramatic reduction in crop production. A Begomovirus isolated from severely diseased tomatoes collected over two- tomato growing seasons in the main tomato-growing areas of Kuwait and characterised at the molecular level, the complete genomic sequence determined based on the genome structure, organization, and phylogenetic analysis, the Begomovirus found to be a strain of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). Two isolates that characterized in this study had 97% and 95% nucleotide sequence identity, with previously characterized Kuwaiti isolate. TYLCV-KISR and the highest sequence identity (95%) was with that of TYLCV-Almeria (Spain) isolate. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the three Kuwait isolates formed a separate clade, which is suggestive of a different lineage from known TYLCV sequences, and the isolate KW 15 could be a novel variant of TYLCV.

  • Tracking antibiotic resistance from hospitals to the environment

    National University of Singapore
    Singapore
    Biography

    Karina Gin is an Associate Professor at the Civil & Environmental Engineering Department at the National University of Singapore (NUS). She received her B.Eng in Civil Engineering from the University of Melbourne (1988), M.Eng Degree from NUS (1991) and Doctor of Science (ScD) Degree jointly from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (1996). Her research specialisation is in water quality, especially in the development of rapid and sensitive methods of detection for emerging contaminants of concern and understanding their fate and transport in the environment. Her current research focuses on the occurrence and fate of pathogens and emerging organic contaminants in tropical surface waters and harmful algal blooms in fresh waters. Dr Gin received a UN Atlas Award for excellence (co-author of "The Environment in Asia Pacific Harbours"). She is a member of the WHO Expert Group on Antimicrobial Resistance in Water Safety and Hygiene and is currently holding the Dean’s Chair at the Faculty of Engineering (NUS).

    Abstract

    Statement of Problem: An emerging health problem is the increase of antibiotic resistant pathogens arising from indiscriminant usage of antibiotics, and the transfer of antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs) between pathogens via mobile genetic elements. Last-resort antibiotics, such as extended-spectrum ?-lactam (ESBLs) and carbapenems used in the treatment of patients have resulted in the spread of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) extending beyond the hospital setting. Hospital wastewaters in particular are important sources of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and ARGs. Hence determining the removal efficiencies in wastewater treatment processes, and the occurrences of ARB and ARGs in the urban environment (surface waters) and sites of aquaculture activity (fish farms) provides bearing on the spread of antimicrobial resistance. Methodology: Metagenomics, qPCR and culturing methods were used as an assessment of ARB and ARGs in hospital and domestic wastewaters. Gram-negative pathogens (i.e. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) at high concentrations exhibited pheno- and genotypic resistance (e.g. blaKPC, blaNDM genes) to ESBL and carbapenem antibiotics. To characterize the occurrence and risk of these antibiotic resistant pathogens in the urban water cycle and environmental waters, samples were tested on a routine basis using selective media supplemented with 5 different classes of antibiotics. Findings: The membrane bioreactor treatment (MBR) process of a wastewater treatment plant showed complete removal of all four pathogens (influent?MBR), however there were periods where E. coli, K. pneumonia and P. aeruginosa were detected in MBR effluent (6-7 log removal). Of the P. aeruginosa isolates detected, a few exhibited phenotypic resistance to carbapenem and ESBL antibiotics. In environmental waters, higher abundance of pathogens was detected in urban surface waters followed by aquaculture sites than marine sites within the vicinity of and outfall discharging treated effluent. Conclusion & Significance: A comprehensive surveillance framework was developed to track hotspots of antimicrobial resistance in the urban water cycle and the spread of ARB and ARGs in the environment.

Medical Microbiology | Virology | Medical Immunology | Bacteriology and Bacteriocins | Molecular Microbiology | Microbial Infections and Emerging complications| Mycology
Chair
Speaker
  • Prevention and control of microbial induced corrosion in fuel storage tanks
    Time: 13:45
    Speaker
    Dr. khalil mataqi
    Kuwait Institute for scientific research
    Kuwait
    Biography

    Education PhD Biodesulphurisation of Organic Sulphur Compounds 1999 – 2002 University of Sheffield, U.K. M.Phil. Effects of Environmental changes on the Carbon-Flux 1996-1998 in two isogenic mutants of Escherichia Coli University of Sheffield, U.K. M.Sc. B.Sc., Microbiology 1988-1992 Kuwait University, Kuwait. Awards/Fellowships Distinguished scientist in KISR during the period 2012-2013 Research Experience • Joined KISR in November 1993, Participated in many projects like: Corrosion–pipe corrosion, Biosurfactant, Biodesulphurisation, Bio-remediation, Seawater injection for oil production, etc. • Principal Investigator in: PP023 “Seawater Injection Project- North Kuwait” • Principal Investigator in: PP024C: “Monitoring and Assessment of Parameter Effecting Minageesh Water Injection Plant- West Kuwait” Research Publications Guest, J. R., Attwood, M. M., Machado, R. S., Mataqi, K. Y., Shaw, J. E., & Turner, S. L. (1997). Enzymological and physiological consequences of restructuring the lipoyl domain content of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex of Escherichia coli. Microbiology, 143(2), 457-466. Mataqi, K.Y., Microbial degradation of hydrocarbon in oil-contaminated soil. Biotechnology Applications for the Arid Regions. (2002), p. 245-260. The use of microcosms for evaluation of microbial degradation of hydrocarbon in oil-contaminated soils. Biotechnology Applications for the Arid Regions. (2002), p. 233-241. Mataqi, K.Y., and Fadheelah A. Gholoum. Reduction of sulphate released to the atmosphere by specific bacteria. Journal of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2011), 3 Issue 1, 2011. Mataqi, K. Y., & Akbar, B. H. (2013). Sulfur cycle of microbial corrosion on carbon steel in soil model. International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, 3(2), 617-623. Mataqi, K. Y., &Mathew. B.(2016). Aerobic Bacteria Induce Corrosion. Journal of Multidisciplinary Engineering Science and Technology (JMEST), 3(2), 2106.

    Abstract

    Microbial induced corrosion can lead to several deteriorating outcomes in the oil industry. The growth of microorganisms (bacteria) in fuel storage tanks results in costly maintenance measures as well as alteration in oil product specifications which leads to issues such as corrosion of steel and fiberglass reinforced plastic tanks, tank linings,elastomeric seals and hoses, low points in the piping, leak detectors, turbine pump components, filters and valves, etc.The aim of this work is to evaluate and monitor the several approaches that aid in the prevention and reduction of microbial corrosion in fuel storage tanks in Kuwait. Predator 8000, Acticide CMG, Kathon FP 1.5 Biocide and Predator 6000 are the most effective biocides among the eight tested, in terms of agar well diffusion technique.

  • Investigating the prevalence of rotavirus and its early detection in calves of Kuwait dairy farms using molecular techniques
    Time: 14:15
    Speaker
    Dr. Mohammad Alotaibi
    Kuwait Institute for scientific research
    Kuwait
    Biography

    Dr. Mohammad Alotaibi, graduated from University of Leicester in the UK, is an expert in pathogenic food-borne viruses who is a researcher in Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (http://www.kisr.edu.kw). He is also an expert in inactivation of pathogenic microbes including viruses and bacteria using solar irradiation of water especially in places under natural crises where water sanitation infrastructure is destroyed. He has published many original scientific papers in international journals. Dr. Alotaibi has ongoing research projects including the research that will be presented in the conference for the early detection of rotavirus in calves in Kuwait and its impact for the morbidity and mortality of this virus.

    Abstract

    Statement of the Problem: Rotavirus is one of the main pathogens causing morbidity and mortality in neonatal dairy calves worldwide, and is responsible for 30-44% loss in cattle.It is the most common etiologic agent of diarrhoea in neonatal dairy calves and children, the dominant type being group A.Another impact of the disease is the massive financial loss in the livestock industry. In Kuwait, viral diseases are the major cause of high mortality and morbidity rates in young dairy calves. The proposed study is intended to assess the prevalence of rotavirus in dairy calves by applying molecular diagnostic techniques. Methodology: This project is designed to compare molecular with immunological diagnostic methods for the early detection of rotavirus in calves in Kuwait. Evaluation of detection methods for viral particles and ribonucleic acid (RNA) was performed using latex agglutination (LTA) and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Findings: A total number of 270 fecal and 10 water samples were collected from farms Sulaibiah and Kabd. The fecal samples in triplicate from calves under one year of age based on age and gender. The foecal samples were suspended in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) and tested with Latex Agglutination and 14% of samples showed presence of rotavirus, while RT-PCR showed 30% of rotavirus. These findings indicate that the RT-PCR assay is more specific and sensitive and can be effectively used for the early detection of rotavirus in foecal calf samples.Recommendations: The following are the recommendations for early detection of rotavirus in calves 1. isolation of infected calves to prevent spread of rotavirus between herds. 2. application of rotavirus vaccine to minimize the chances of claves for infection, and 3. application of appropriate diagnostic method by farmers and livestock companies to investigate the presence of rotavirus instantly and take the required actions immediately.

  • Fungi in and around trichomes of sawtooth oak leaves
    Time: 14:45
    Speaker
    Ki Woo Kim
    Kyungpook National University
    South Korea
    Biography

    Ki Woo Kim has completed his PhD from Seoul National University, Korea. He is currently an associate professor at Kyungpook National University, Korea. He has over 100 publications that have been cited over 2,600 times, and his/her publication H-index is 25 and has been serving as an editorial board member of reputed journals.

    Abstract

    Brown spots occurred on naturally infected leaves of Quercus acutissima (sawtooth oak) in Suwon, Korea. Field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed that hyphal branching and spore chains were evident on the adaxial leaf surface. Trichomes were usually colonized by septate hyphae. Hyphae coiled the trichomes and appeared to inhibit the unfolding of trichome branches. Plant cell wall modifications and epidermal shrinkage of trichomes were apparent around hyphae. Hyphal growth appeared to disrupt the non-glandular trichomes on the abaxial leaf surface. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that fungal hyphae were present in the naturally infected trichomes of the oak species. Concentric bodies were often found in the hyphal cytoplasm. These results suggest that the foliar trichomes of sawtooth oak would be fungal infection sites as well as the protective surface structures against a variety of external stresses to the plant.

  • Molecular characterization of methicillin resistance gene among Staphylococcus aureus isolated from poultry farms in Kaduna, Nigeria
    Time: 15:30
    Speaker
    Josiah Ademola ONAOLAPO
    Director of Medical Education & Research, Govt. of Maharashtra
    India
    Biography

    Josiah Ademola ONAOLAPO is a Professor of Pharmaceutical Microbiology at the Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria Nigeria. He rose from the post of an Assistant Lecturer in 1979 to the rank of a Professor in 1996. He had B.Sc. in Pharmacy with Hon. Second Class Upper division, A.B.U., Zaria in the year 1977; M.Sc. in Pharmaceutics, A.B.U., Zaria, 1982 and a PhD in Pharm. Microbiology, Aston University, Birmingham, U.K. 1986. His area of focus has been bacterial drug resistance. He has published over 200 scientific articles both in Local and International Journals. He has supervised over 30 PhD students in the field of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Microbiology, over 50 M.Sc and 100 undergraduate students. He has also carried out researches on finding antibacterial drugs from natural products.

    Abstract

    Statement of Problem: Zoonotic transfer of resistance genes has been reported as one of the major causes of increased community associated methicillin resistance S. aureus (CAMRSA), which has contributed to high hospital visit, mortality and morbidity in clinic. Aim: This study evaluates the occurrence of S. aureus encoding MecA gene in poultry birds from Kaduna metropolis. Methodology: sample collection was carried out using standard epidemiological procedure, S. aureus isolation,identification and biochemical test were carried out using standard microbiological methods, antibiotic susceptibility testing was carried out using disc diffusion agar while molecular analysis was carried out using PCR techniques. Results: A total of 600 poultry samples from 300 layers and 300 broilers were randomly collected from 4 poultry farms for evaluation. Using Microgen biochemical kit 27.3% of the samples collected yielded S. aureus. Using disc diffusion method 37.2 % (61) of the S. aureus were resistant to oxacillin. The resistance profile of the oxacillin resistant isolates showed that the isolates were highly resistant to tetracycline (88.5%), ciprofloxacin (80.3%), mildly resistant to cotrimoxazole(32.8%), vancomycin (31.1%) and susceptible to amoxiclav(93.4%), cefoxitin and gentamicin (97.7% respectively). High percentage of the isolates 34.4% (21) harbored the MecA gene that amplified at 162 base pair while none of the isolates harbor MecA gene with 500bp. Conclusion: This study reports the presence of MDR S. aureus encoding MecA gene among S. aureus isolates evaluated from poultry farm in Kaduna metropolis, hence this calls for concern as poultry products serves as means to fast dissemination of livestock and community associated methicillin resistant S. aureus as high percentage of poultry farmers, abattoirs and meat vendors carries out their activity without veterinary nor government control.

  • Pseudomonas exoenzyme y-mediated evasion of host innate immune responses
    Time: 16:00
    Speaker
    Un-Hwan Ha
    Korean University
    South Korea
    Biography

    Un-Hwan Ha has completed his PhD in the flied of microbiology and immunology from the university of florida in 2002 and has continued postdoctoral studies in the field of innate immunity and cellular microbiology from house ear institute and university of Rochester medical center. In 2008, he got an assistant professor position at the department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Korea University and has served as professor since 2015. He has published about 20 research articles contributed as a corresponding author in reputed journals since 2008. His main research area is host-microbe interactions by aiming to understand both bacterial pathogenesis and host innate immune responses

    Abstract

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is recognized as a leading cause of respiratory infections in cystic fibrosis or in immunocompromised patients. P.aeruginosa possesses a number of virulence factors released through diverse secretion systems, and type III secreted effectors have obtained much attention for their ability to manipulate host cell function and viability during infections. However, little is known about the impact of exoenzyme Y (ExoY), which is directly translocated into the cytoplasm of infected host cells, on the modulation of host innate immune responses. In this study, we analyzed effects of ExoY in the activation of inflammasome, which results in IL-1? production and pyroptotic cell death. Inflammasome-mediated production of IL-1? and formation of pyroptotic cell death were clearly reduced in response to ExoY. These suppressive effects were mediated by the adenylate cyclase activity of ExoY, which plays a role in delaying the activation of NF-?B and caspase-1, a key component of inflammasome-mediated responses.Moreover, the reduction in cytotoxicity was in part associated with ExoY-involved suppression of bacterial motility, which probably causes the reduction of bacterial contact with cells.Together, these results demonstrate that ExoY can influence both host and bacterium itself to reduce inflammasomerelated responses by delaying the activation of inflammatory pathways and suppressing bacterial motility.

Day 2

KEYNOTE SPEAKERS
  • Prevalence of diabetes type-2 & pulmonary tuberculosis among Filipino and treatment outcomes: a surveillance study in the Eastern Saudi Arabia

    King Saud University
    Saudi Arabia
    Biography

    Graduation: MBBS- King Edward Medical College University Lahore1981. Post Graduation: 1-DTCD —Diploma in Tuberculosis & Chest Diseases -Punjab University Lahore-Pakistan 1984. 2-MCPS--- Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan 1986. 3-MRCP, FRCP---The Royal College of Physicians Dublin-Ireland 2005. 4-FCCP (USA) Fellowship of American College of Physicians 2013. Work & Experience in Pakistan: TRAINING: 1-House physician, Registrar Institute of Chest Diseases & Tuberculosis King Edward Medical College & Mayo teaching Hospital Lahore Lung Function Laboratory and Bronchoscopy Centre Lahore.1982-1987. 2- Clinical attachments in general medicine at St.George University Hospital Dublin, Galway University Hospital Ireland, Northwick Hospital & Hammersmith Hospital London UK. 3-Training in advanced Bronchoscopy at National Heart & Lung Institute Imperial College London Uk 2010. TEACHING EXPERIENCE: 1- Pakistan: Assistant professor Deptt.of Chest Diseases & Tuberculosis at King Edward Medical College & Visiting Chest Physician Mayo Hospital Lahore -1987. 2- MOH of Saudi Arabia as Physician Chest Specialist Dammam Medical Complex & Chief of Fitness Centre Dammam KSA since 1988- 2004. 3- Consultant Pulmonologist, Chief of Chest diseases and Tuberculosis Centre Dammam Medical Complex KSA 2004-2010. 4- Consultant Pulmonologist & Chairman of Int.Medicine, Supervisor of House Physicians Prince Sultan bin Abdulaziz Humanitarian City Riyadh KSA 2011- 2015.

    Abstract

    Aim: The aim is to study prevalence of diabetes type-2 and pulmonary tuberculosis among Filipino patients and treatment out comes. Tuberculosis centre of Dammam medical complex(MOH) is a referral centre for the Eastern Saudi Arabia where patients from all government and private hospitals having open pulmonary tuberculosis are admitted for isolation till they are rendered non-infectious. All patients are treated for 6 months under DOTS strategy with 4 drugs (2HRZE) for 2 months as initial intensive phase and 2 drugs (HR) for 4 months as continuation phase. Materials & Methods: We retrospectively reviewed clinical records of 1388 patients admitted with open pulmonary tuberculosis between Jan- 2003 and June-2010. Results: Among 1388 patients, 39% (n=542) were Saudis and 61% (n=846) were non-Saudis. Among these 12.39% (n=172) were Filipinos, 153 males and 19 females respectively. Out of 1388 patients, 114 (7.17%) were found to have diabetes type-2. Among these diabetics, majority n=91 (79.82%) were Filipinos. Sputum conversion was late in diabetic patients resulting in relatively longer hospital stay compared to fellow patients having only tuberculosis.

  • Why buy probiotics while they are already in your fridge? The 2-in-1 effect of dairy bacteria as both immune modulators and cheese starters

    AGROCAMPUS OUEST
    France
    Biography

    Gwénaël Jan research activity focuses on the “2-in-1” properties of selected strains of dairy bacteria, both as starters for fermented dairy products, and as probiotic beneficial microbes. Following a PhD in Rennes University and Post-doc in Aberdeen Institute of Medical Sciences, he joined INRA in 1998 to study probiotic abilities of dairy propionibacteria. In close collaboration with INSERM, Pasteur Institute, Rennes University Hospital, as well as with dairy industry stakeholders, he develops a research activity spanning from food technology and molecular microbiology to preclinical and clinical investigations

    Abstract

    Scope: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) constitute a growing public health concern in western countries. Bacteria with anti-inflammatory properties are lacking in the dysbiosis accompanying IBD. Selected strains of probiotic bacteria with anti-inflammatory properties accordingly alleviate symptoms and enhance treatment of ulcerative colitis in clinical trials. Such properties are also found in selected strains of dairy starters such as Propionibacterium freudenreichii. Cheese constitutes an important source of bacteria, which can have beneficial effects, depending on the species or strain. We thus investigated the possibility to develop a fermented dairy product, combining both starter and probiotic abilities of propionic acid bacteria, designed to extend remissions in IBD patients. Methods & Results: We developed a single-strain P. freudenreichii-fermented experimental pressed cheese using a strain previously selected for its anti-inflammatory properties. Key immunomodulatory P. freudenreichii surface proteins were expressed within the cheese matrix, as evidenced by insitu proteomics. Consumption of this experimental fermented dairy product protected mice against TNBS-induced colitis,alleviating severity of symptoms, modulating local and systemic inflammation, as well as colonic oxidative stress and epithelial cell damages. As a control, the corresponding sterile dairy matrix failed to afford such protection.

Diagnostics Microbiology | Industrial Microbiology & Food Microbiology | Immunology
Chair
Speaker
  • The secret weapon that allows Staphylococcus aureus to hijack your cell cycle
    Speaker
    Nadejda Berkova
    AGROCAMPUS OUEST
    France
    Biography

    Nadejda Berkova has her expertise in host-pathogen interaction. Her research interest focuses on the molecular understanding of immunological pathways and analysis of gene expression in the context of immune deregulation of the organism. She investigates the mechanistic strategies of pathogens to subvert the host defense for their own benefit. Her team identified several staphylococcal cyclomodulins, the family of bacterial effectors that induce eukaryotic cell cycle alterations, and demonstrated the involvement of these bacterial compounds in the alteration of the host immune response. These findings are important for the development of new anti-infective and anti-inflammatory strategies.

    Abstract

    Statement of the Problem: Bacterial cyclomodulins are a growing family of microbial virulence factors that not only alter host cell cycle progression, but that also interfere with host cell activity, thus favoring the hijacking of host cell protective functions for their own benefit. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), a highly versatile Gram-positive pathogen can cause life-threatening infections. The implication of S.aureus in the alteration of the eukaryotic cell cycle and the biological significance of such an alteration has not been fullyinvestigated. Aim: The purpose of the study is to explore the mechanism and to identify staphylococcal compounds that caused host cell cycle arrest and to evaluate the benefit provided by cyclomodulins to bacteria. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: Flow Cytometry analysis, size exclusion chromatography, mass spectroscopy analysis, Western blotting and immunofluorescence methods were used to identify staphylococcal cyclomodulins and characterize the mechanism. Findings: We demonstrated that S. aureus-induced G2/M transition delay was associated with the accumulation of inactive cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk1, a key inducer of mitosis entry, and with the accumulation of unphosphorylated histone H3. Phenol-soluble modulin a (PSMa) peptides were found responsible for this effect. The use of S. aureus mutants confirmed the findings. We showed that the G2 phase was preferential for bacterial proliferation and found that PSMa-induced G2/M transition delay correlated with a decrease in the defensins genes expression. We demonstrated that additionally to secreted staphylococcal cyclomodulins the membrane-anchored lipoprotein-like proteins exert cyclomodulin activity. Conclusion & Significance: Our findings demonstrate that an alteration of the eukaryotic cell cycle enhances an infective efficiency of bacterial pathogens, suggesting that such an alteration may be used by S. aureus for propagation within the host. Moreover, the correlation of PSMa-induced G2/M transition delay with a decrease in the defensins genes expression suggests a reduction of antibacterial functions of infected cells.

  • Understanding immunity to invasive Salmonella diseases to design new preventive measures
    Time: 12:15
    Speaker
    Pietro Mastroeni
    University of Cambridge
    United Kingdom
    Biography

    Dr.Mastroeni is a scientist with a medical background. His research is focused on the interplay between bacterial pathogenesis and the immune system as the foundation for vaccine development. His work has established many key requirements and mechanisms of protective immunity to bacterial infections and has identified and characterized bacterial virulence and/or immune-evasion genes as targets for live attenuated vaccine candidates. His group has pioneered innovative multidisciplinary approaches, which combine immunology, microscopy, molecularly tagged microbial subpopulations and mathematical modeling, to study bacterial infection dynamics in vivo. This has allowed to unravel the impact of immunity, vaccination and antibiotics on pathogen behaviour at the single cell level and to gather a global understanding of infection biology.

    Abstract

    Bacterial diseases are a grave threat for humankind causing approximately six million deaths per year. Invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) are a leading cause of lethal sepsis in young children and immune-compromised individuals, especially in developing countries with an estimated 3.8M illnesses and 680,000 deaths. Antimicrobial resistance is on the increase and no vaccines are currently licensed. iNTS disease has a pathogenesis that is both extracellular and intracellular, with systemic spread in multiple body tissues. iNTS are vulnerable to antibodies and complement that lyse the bacteria and/or target them to phagocytes, increasing the antimicrobial functions of host cells. Development and optimisation of preventive measures against iNTS, including vaccines, requires a clearer understanding of the correlates and mechanism of action of the protective immune response. Using multidisciplinary approaches that include novel gene-targeted animals and human in vitro systems,our work has identified phagocyte receptors, intracellular killing mechanisms and bacterial antigens that are involved in phagocyte- and antibody-mediated killing of iNTS. Using recombinant chimeric immunoglobulins, we have determined the relative potency of different IgG subclasses in human preclinical models, thus generating essential information on the requirements of the protective response. This work lays a foundation for the development of vaccines and antibodies in the prevention and therapy of septicaemic iNTS in immunedeficient individuals.

  • Mechanism that enhances the action of rifampicin on multi-resistant mycobacteria tuberculosis when it is administered in combination with an iodine-containing anti-infection drug
    Time: 12:45
    Speaker
    Gulnara A Yuldasheva
    A.Tortora Cancer Hospital – Pagani (SA) –Italy
    Italy
    Biography

    Gulnara A Yuldasheva received her Ph.D from Central Asian Department of National Academy of Sciences. She is now a Leading Research in Scientific Center for Anti-Infective Drug, Kazakhstan, Almaty. She is membership American Chemical Society She works to use quantum-chemical methods. She has an interest in a mechanism the inhibition of DNA HIV replication, mechanisms of anti-cancer action of complex iodine with lithium halogenides and bioorganic ligands and influence on mechanisms biochemical reaction. of iodine complex compounds. Her current research is focused to find of new compounds having anti-infection and anticancer activity.

    Abstract

    A new iodine-containing anti-infection drug (AID) has been created possessing a broad spectrum of antimicrobial and antiviral effects at the Scientific Center for Anti-infectious Drugs (Republic Kazakhstan). Unlike other iodine-containing drugs, AID is used for oral administration. AID promotes an increase in the permeability of the cell membrane and bacterial wall and has membraneolytic capacity. In vivo and in vitro experiments AID was found to possess an anti-tuberculosis effect. In clinical isolates of mycobacteria isolated in clinical trials from patients suffering from multidrug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis, in vitro as well as in vivo sensitivity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to rifampicin, isoniazid, streptomycin, ethambutol was found restored and enhanced where AID acted together with antibiotics. The active center of AID is a complex of magnesium ion with lithium halide, molecular iodine and triiodide. Therefore, it can form a complex with rifampicin. When interacting with mycobacterium DNA, the nucleotides displace the peptides and form a complex with the molecular iodine and the lithium halide. In paper, the crystal structure core of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP) complex with rifampicin was determined; it is shown that rifampicin inhibits the ?-loop of RNAP at a distance of about 12.1 Å from the active center of RNAP. Distinguished are amino acid residues of RNAP, which form hydrogen bonds with rifampicin. In paper, it is shown that the resistance to rifampicin is caused by mutations in the DNA of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that lead to the replacement of amino acid residues in the RNAP ?-loop region that interacts with rifampicin and, as a consequence, to the weakening of binding energy of amino acid residues with rifampicin. Using the molecular modeling method, we have shown that an increase in the action of rifampicin and the restoration of Mycobacterium tuberculosis’s sensitivity to it when administered together with AID are due to the following two reasons: (1) the AID active center binds both the bacterial DNA and the active center of RNAP, (2) when amino acid residues of RNAP are inhibited by the rifampicin complex with the AID active center, the inhibitory energy is enhanced.

  • A 35-year-old immuno-competent male with open pulmonary tuberculosis associated with extra-ordinary extensive extra-pulmonary tuberculosis
    Time: 14:00
    Speaker
    Liaqat Ali Chaudhry
    King Saud University
    Saudi Arabia
    Biography

    Graduation: MBBS- King Edward Medical College University Lahore1981. Post Graduation: 1-DTCD —Diploma in Tuberculosis & Chest Diseases -Punjab University Lahore-Pakistan 1984. 2-MCPS--- Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan 1986. 3-MRCP, FRCP---The Royal College of Physicians Dublin-Ireland 2005. 4-FCCP (USA) Fellowship of American College of Physicians 2013. Work & Experience in Pakistan: TRAINING: 1-House physician, Registrar Institute of Chest Diseases & Tuberculosis King Edward Medical College & Mayo teaching Hospital Lahore Lung Function Laboratory and Bronchoscopy Centre Lahore.1982-1987. 2- Clinical attachments in general medicine at St.George University Hospital Dublin, Galway University Hospital Ireland, Northwick Hospital & Hammersmith Hospital London UK. 3-Training in advanced Bronchoscopy at National Heart & Lung Institute Imperial College London Uk 2010. TEACHING EXPERIENCE: 1- Pakistan: Assistant professor Deptt.of Chest Diseases & Tuberculosis at King Edward Medical College & Visiting Chest Physician Mayo Hospital Lahore -1987. 2- MOH of Saudi Arabia as Physician Chest Specialist Dammam Medical Complex & Chief of Fitness Centre Dammam KSA since 1988- 2004. 3- Consultant Pulmonologist, Chief of Chest diseases and Tuberculosis Centre Dammam Medical Complex KSA 2004-2010. 4- Consultant Pulmonologist & Chairman of Int.Medicine, Supervisor of House Physicians Prince Sultan bin Abdulaziz Humanitarian City Riyadh KSA 2011- 2015.

    Abstract

    Multifocal tuberculosis is characterized by the presence of large multifocal tuberculosis areas in the same or different adjacent or distant organs. Primary lesions are usually in the lungs in majority of the patients. Difficulty in confirming multifocal tuberculosis and consideration of other diseases may lead to a delay in diagnosis and thus in initiating treatment. Bone and joint involvement in tuberculosis is uncommon. While osteoarticular tuberculosis most commonly occurs in the vertebral column, less frequently affected sites are hip, knee, and sacroiliac joints. The following is a fascinating case of open pulmonary tuberculosis associated with extensive extra-pulmonary multifocal tuberculosis.

  • Probiotics for the use in the development of cattle production in Kuwait
    Time: 14:30
    Speaker
    Tahani Al-Surrayai
    Kuwait Institute for scientific research
    Kuwait
    Biography

    Ms. Tahani Al-Surrayai joined the Biotechnology Dept. at KISR in 1995 as a Research Assistant. During the past twenty two years, she developed excellent technical skills and has actively participated in several important research projects in the area of Environmental Biotechnology. Her role in the many projects resulted successfully in the isolation, characterization and optimization of a large number of new microbial strains from the local environment. These strains have been used as an integral part of the developed sulfur amendment for enhancing soil fertility. Additionally, Mrs. Al-Surrayai leads a task in a study that focused on the screening and evaluation of PAHs degrading microorganisms for the local environment. Besides her depth of knowledge and skills in biochemistry and microbiology, she involved in the development of probiotic bacteria for use in livestock and poultry. Accordingly, she has been leaded two successful projects in probiotics fields for livestock.

    Abstract

    Dairy farms in Kuwait are facing extremely arid conditions that induce animal stress and tend to reduce energy reserves that weaken the immune system making the animal more susceptible to disease and increase animal mortality. To combat these diseases, farmers administer antibiotics to the cattle which are also used by humans. Overuse can lead to the bacteria developing resistance to these antibiotics. In addition, when dairy products from these antibiotic-ingested cattle are consumed by humans, the antibiotic residue enters their system causing them to develop resistance to those antibiotics. The main objectives of this research project were to isolate and evaluate probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) during four seasons for utilization as an alternative to antibiotics in cattle production to control enteric pathogens, enhance productivity and improve food safety. The evaluation was covered by determination of antagonistic activity of LAB using in vitro tests and determining their tolerance to acidic pH, resistance to bile salts, resistance to antibiotics bacteriocin production, and aggregation and co-aggregations. The preliminary isolation process resulted in the isolation of 263 presumptive Lactobacilli, and among them, 80 were confirmed to belong to the lactic acid bacteria group by means of molecular tools (16S rRNA-Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCR)-sequencing). Ten representative strains were chosen and screened for their probiotic potential. During this study, active LAB strains were isolated such as L. fermentum, L. rhamnousus and L. reuteri. These strains can potentially inhibit the growth of some common pathogen (S. enterica and E. coil) and tolerate the acidic condition in the ruminant’s digestive system, tolerate bile salt and have the ability to adhere to hydrocarbons. As a final result, a pool of 4 strains seemed to have the relevant probiotic potential to be further tested as agents able to reduce bacterial infections.

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