Scientific Program

Day 1

KEYNOTE SPEAKERS
  • Kala-azar Elimination Programme in South-East Asia Region

    Glocal Hospital, India
    India
    Abstract

    KALA-AZAR ELIMINATION PROGRAMME IN SOUTH-EAST ASIA REGION Visceral Leishmaniasis or Kala-azar is characterized by fever (>14 days), anaemia, loss of body weight and most importantly splenomegaly. The disease is endemic in many parts of the world. In the South-East Asia region, the disease is prevalent in localized pockets of India, Bangladesh, Nepal and few indigenous cases in Bhutan. Kala-azar is a disease of poverty, causes stigmatization, retards economic growth and enhances malnutrition. The disease if not treated the patient dies in about two years due to undercurrent infection. Tuberculosis and worm infestations are common in kala-azar infection. At one time Sodium Stibogluconate was the sheet anchor of treatment of kala-azar (last 60-70 years). Over the years, the parasite called Leishmania donovani became resistant to the drug. Escalation of dosage was associated with cardiotoxicity and death. In the recent past, an international collaboration in India facilitated development of several safe and effective drugs. The most suitable drug was miltefosine, the first ever oral drug developed for kala-azar. This was followed by paromomycin, an injectable aminoglycoside. Amphotericin B and then lipid amphotericin were developed. Lipid amphotericin B is the safest and most effective drug for the treatment of kala-azar. A phase IV community trial showed that miltefosine may be used in the outpatient’s treatment of kala-azar. rK39, a rapid diagnostic test, was developed and vector control methods were in place. As the disease is localized and Phlebotomus argentepis was the only vector and man is the only reservoir, it was considered possible to eliminate the disease from the region. Currently, the incidence of kala-azar in all the three countries have come down drastically and approaching elimination target (less than 1 case per 10000 populations in endemic areas). This programme is viewed as “Poverty alleviation programme”.

  • Convergence and Integration of Life Sciences and Engineering - Infectious Diseases

    University of Minnesota Duluth
    USA
    Biography

    Desinen Subbaram Naidu received MTech & PhD in Electrical Engineering, from Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur (IITK), INDIA. He taught, visited and/or conducted research at IIT; National Research Council (NRC) Senior Research Associate at Guidance and Control Division at NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, USA (1985-90); Old Domain University, Norfolk, VA, USA (1987-90); as Professor, Associate Dean and Director, School of Engineering at Idaho State University and Measurement and Control Engineering Research Center, Pocatello, Idaho, USA (1990-2014). Since August 2014, he has been with University of Minnesota Duluth as Minnesota Power Jack Rowe Endowed Chair and Professor of Electrical Engineering. Professor received twice the Senior National Research Council (NRC) Associateship award from the US National Academy of Sciences (NAS), and is an elected (1995) (now Life) Fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) and an elected (2003) Fellow of the World Innovation Foundation, UK. His teaching and research interests are Electrical Engineering; Control Systems; Optimal Control: Theory and Applications; Biomedical Sciences and Engineering (Prosthetics and Infectious Diseases); Large Scale Systems and Singular Perturbations and Time Scales (SPaTS): Control Theory and Applications; Guidance and Control of Aerospace Systems: Aeroassisted Orbital Transfer for Mars mission and Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles (UAVs); Advanced Control Strategies for Heating, Ventilation, & Air-Conditioning (HVAC); Modeling, Sensing and Control of Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) and has over 200 journal and conference publications including 9 books.

    Abstract

    LIFE SCIENCES AND ENGINEERING- INFECTIOUS DISEASES Based on recent research theme of the “convergence” of life sciences, physical sciences, engineering and the “integration” of Humanities and arts with sciences, engineering and medicine, designing and evaluating the treatment strategies for infectious diseases are addressed. The infectious diseases addressed are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and measles, whose behaviour is modeled and described by a set of dynamical differential equations amenable for “integrating” with engineering (i.e. optimal control theory and applications. However, when detailed models for infectious diseases are considered for devising treatments, the resulting optimal control laws result in treatment plans for infectious diseases complex and unfeasible for practical implementation. These recent research investigations present a feasible long term optimal control treatment through the application of singular perturbation and time scales (SPaTS) methods. A nonlinear HIV model is decoupled into lower order, slow and fast subsystems based on its inherent time scale behaviour. Distinct slow and fast linear quadratic regulator (LQR) based optimal control laws are designed and applied in a conventional long term optimal treatment plan. The extensive simulation results manifest the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Infectious Diseases | Treatment | Vaccination for Infectious Diseases | Infection and Immune System | Complications in Infectious Disease Practice
Chair
Speaker
  • ANALYSIS OF BACTERIAL COMPONENTS TO ENHANCE LEUCOCYTES POPULATION FOR VACCINE DEVELOPMENT
    Speaker
    Muruganandam M
    Einsteein Bio-Engineering Research Foundation, India
    India
    Biography

    Muruganandam M has completed MSc, PhD in Zoology and specialization in Biotechnology. He has interested in bacterial vaccine development research. He has published more than hundred publication including ten books. His publications are cited in various databases of more than ten countries. He has an Editorship in twelve international journals.

    Abstract

    Leucocytes protect us from various invading pathogens. In the leucocytes population, polymorphic neutrophils and lymphocytes have a major role in fighting against pathogens. In this study, the important bacterial components and their effects on leucocytes production was reviewed and also discussed. Many bacterial components increases leucocytes production which are inactivated cells, various peptides, nucleotides and their fragments etc. The normal and mutant inactivated cells are also induced to increase the production of leucocytes population. There are different types of proteins which are also inducing leucocytes production. These important proteins are inactivated toxin protein, Heat stress proteins etc. In the nucleotides, Genomic DNA, Plasmid DNA and their fragments are induced to produce more leucocytes. If researchers use all these bio molecules in appropriate level, it leads to act as good immunostimulants and also act as vaccine immunogens.

  • COMPUTATIONAL IDENTIFICATION OF NOVEL INHIBITORS AGAINST KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE DNA ADENINE METHYLTRANSFERASE
    Speaker
    Umairah Natasya Mohd Omeershffudin
    Management and Science University, Malaysia
    Malaysia
    Biography

    Umairah Natasya Mohd Omeershffudin is an undergraduate student from Management and Science University, Malaysia. Currently she is doing her final year Bachelor in Bioinformatics (Hons). Her research focusing on finding novel drug target for antimicrobial resistant bacterial pathogens using computational aided drug design.

    Abstract

    Klebsiella pneumoniae a gram-negative bacteria causing pneumonia, urinary tract infection and liver abscess infections in the nosocomial settings. These bacterial pathogens are classified under the urgent hazard level leading towards a concern in public health. The epidemiology remains enigmatic and the current antibiotics failing to combat the emerging antimicrobial resistant bacteria. DNA methylation is seen to play a vital role in regulating the gene expression, directed mismatched repair and are seen to influence the bacterial pathogenicity. Current antibiotic-resistant studies have been progressively associated with DNA adenine methyltransferase (DAM) inhibitors, which play a crucial role in bacterial pathogenesis. Author’s aim of the study is to screen novel natural inhibitor for Klebsiella pneumonia DNA adenine methyltransferase. They had performed fingerprint similarity search based on Mahanine which resulted in 22 similar structures. Based on virtual screening using Autodock and ADMET test, they identified Koenimbine having a high affinity towards our previously identified protein target (A0A2U0NNR3) with -5.67kcal/mol and does not violates the Lipinski Rule of 5. This study will provide insight towards the identification of the new natural bioactive compound as a potential drug target to combat antimicrobial resistant pathogens.

Day 2

KEYNOTE SPEAKERS
  • MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF ZIKA VIRUSES WITH VERTICAL TRANSMISSION

    Temple University
    USA
    Biography

    Durgesh Sinha, female, did Ph. D (Applied Mathematics), M. Sc. (Mathematics), B. Sc. (Mathematics honors) in 2000, 1996, and 1994 respectively from Vinoba Bhave University, Jharkhand, India. Apart from this she did M. Sc. from Civil and Environmental Engineering department, Temple University, Philadelphia, USA in 2008 to enhance skill on Applied sciences. Since 2008, she started teaching at Temple University (2008), Rowan College at Burlington County (2009), Strayer University (2010), Community College of Philadelphia (2014), and Mercer County Community College (2014) till current as an Adjunct Assistant professor. Meanwhile I involved in research of Computer virus and infectious diseases modeling, and I published three papers in reputed Journal Scientific Reports (Nature), and J Immunol. Tech. Infect. Disease in 2016, and 2018. My current research goal is of Epidemics and cyber-crime.

    Abstract

    This research investigates an infectious disease caused by an RNA virus called Zika, both in mosquitoes and humans. The Zika arbovirus transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquitoes has been shown to be capable of infecting humans via two routes: the bites of infected vectors and through sexual contacts involving infected and non-infected persons. Zika virus can cause influenza in effected humans and several diseases in infants of infected pregnant women. Author has formulated a mathematical model SEIPRRbRib for human population and SEI for vector population to see effect of Zika virus on the human, pregnant women, zika infected newborn baby from infected pregnant women and mosquito population. They computed the basic reproduction number for both human and mosquito population. They have used data of real cases in the United States. Author’s aim is to show the rate of transmission and consequences in new born infants with brain disorder and to help taking precautions against this disease.

  • SELF-ADJUVANTING LIPOPEPTIDE NANOPARTICULATE VACCINE CANDIDATES FOR THE INDUCTION OF PROTECTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSES

    The University of Queensland, Australia
    Australia
    Biography

    Istvan Toth is a Chemical Engineer and an internationally recognized expert in drug delivery. His major research interests lies in immunoadjuvants, carbohydrates, lipids, peptides, nucleosides and nucleotides. He is a Fellow of the Royal Australian Chemical Institute, The Queensland Academy of Science and Art and The Hungarian Academy of Sciences.

    Abstract

    Adjuvants are essential for enhancing and directing the adaptive immune response to vaccine antigens. The relationship between a vaccines physicochemical property and the type of immune response acquired is critical for the advancement of vaccine adjuvants. This underpins researcher’s goal to study the structure-activity relationship between self-adjuvanting lipid-based vaccine candidates containing ovalbumin (OVA) CD4 and CD8 peptide epitopes to determine the optimal architecture for stimulation of potent cell-mediated immune responses. Constructs that formed small nanoparticles showed higher cytolytic activity and enhanced tumour growth inhibition. Overall the investigation of the relationship between physicochemical properties self-assembled nanoparticles and immune response for new vaccine candidates is very important.

Infectious Diseases | Treatment | Vaccination for Infectious Diseases Infection and Immune System | Complications in Infectious Disease Practice
Chair
Speaker
  • EFFICACY OF ANTI-FILARIAL DRUGS IN REDUCTION OF MF PREVALENCE IN ANIMAL SPECIES: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW
    Speaker
    Cho Min Naing
    International Medical University, Malaysia
    Malaysia
    Abstract

    The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) was launched in 2000 with a goal of eliminating the disease by 2020. Albeit with concerted efforts, lymphatic filariasis remains a public health problem in some endemic countries. Besides, brugian infections in the human hosts, zoonotic filariae involving cats and dogs have been reported in endemic countries including Thailand and Malaysia. Objective: To characterize the efficacy of anti-filarial drug interventions on animal population. Methods: Researchers performed a systematic review following a PRISMA checklist. Findings: Eight studies from India, Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Thailand reported Mf-positive rates on domestic cats and dogs. Of these, only three studies provided data on the efficacy of anti-filarial drugs in reducing Mf prevalence in animal species; these are from Malaysia (one study) and Thailand (two studies). There was no conclusive evidence on the reduction of prevalence when compared between pre and post treatments. For instance, a small study in Thailand showed a significant reduction in Mf prevalence, when compared between pre and post treatments. Whether this was a true effect is uncertain as there was a huge variation with very wide 95% CI (OR: 10.0, 95%; CI: 1.1-93.4). Another small study in Thailand showed no significant reduction in Mf prevalence after anti-filarial treatment (OR: 1.35, 95%; CI: 0.5-3.6). A study in Malaysia reported that cats were probably infected with subperiodic B. malayi from humans and their Mf positivity status was a reflection of the endemicity of the area. Discussion & Conclusions: The findings could not provide conclusive evidence of mass drug administration (MDA) in reducing Mf prevalence in animal population. MDA is not yet practiced for all animal reservoirs, but may be a strategy for domestic reservoirs such as cats and dogs. The approach for MDA in domestic cats and dogs could be with various combinations of albendazole, ivermectin and doxycycline as cats react aggressively to diethylcarbamazine (thus triggering possible community resistance to programme). Barriers in implementation of drugs to the domestic animals (e.g. cats) may be an issue of community’s acceptance/decline. For programme success, inter-sectoral collaboration and community mobilizations in control of animal (domestic) reservoir though MDA approach is crucially important.

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