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Theme
“Eyes on Diabetes: Approach towards to change tomorrow”
- Diabetes 2017

About Conference

We are delighted to welcome you for the prestigious "International Conference on Diabetes & Healthcare" held on December 06-07, 2017 at Sao Paulo, Brazil. This conference will focus on the theme “Eyes on Diabetes: Approach towards to change tomorrow”. We are confident that you will enjoy the Scientific Program of this upcoming Conference.

Diabetes is a group of diseases that result in too much sugar in the blood, or high blood glucose. Diabetes is a disease in which your blood glucose or blood sugar levels are too high. Glucose comes from the foods we eat. Insulin is a hormone that helps the glucose gets into our cells to give them energy. With type 1 diabetes, our body does not make insulin. With type 2 diabetes, the more common type, our body does not make or use insulin well. Without enough insulin, the glucose stays in our blood. We can also have prediabetes. This means that our blood sugar is higher than normal but not high enough to be called diabetes. Over time, having too much glucose in our blood can cause serious problems. It can damage our eyes, kidneys, and nerves. Diabetes can also cause heart diseases, stroke and even the need to remove a limb. Pregnant women can also get diabetes called gestational diabetes.

Not being able to produce insulin or use it effectively leads to raised glucose levels in the blood (known as hyperglycaemia). Prevention and treatment involve maintaining a healthy diet, regular physical exercise, a normal body weight, and avoiding use of tobacco.

 

The Allied Academies' family of journals have been performing very well in Business and Management and are a perfect fit for our readers. We provide our authors and readers a platform that serves them well and helps them share their work with the global community. We are expanding the focus of Allied Academies beyond Business and Management Journals to incorporate scientific areas as well.

Our primary focus is to support original research work, share and exchange the ideas of authors from various institutions with the world. Our journals act as successful outlets for numerous scholars including teaching professors and researchers.


Why to attend???

Diabetes 2017 gives an exciting opportunity to meet with likeminded people and industry peers. Conferences bring together people from all different geographical areas who share a common discipline or field. Conferences give you the opportunity to talk to these people one-on-one about what they are working on, and they may even give you advice on how to enhance your own work. At conference you have the opportunity to get feedback on your work from people who have never seen it before and may provide new insight. Briefly it is an invest in yourself, your career and your company.

Target Audience:

 

Physicians

Diabetes Educators

Dieticians

Professors and Medical Students

Practitioners

Other Healthcare Professionals with an interest in Diabetes

 

Sessions/Tracks

Track 1: Diabetes: What, How and When?

When we eat, our body turns food into sugars, or glucose. At that point, our pancreas is supposed to release insulin. Insulin serves as a “key” to open our cells, to allow the glucose to enter and allow us to use the glucose for energy. But with diabetes, this system does not work. Several major things can go wrong – causing the onset of diabetes; Diabetes is a disease in which the body is unable to properly use and store glucose (a form of sugar). Glucose backs up in the bloodstream — causing one’s blood glucose (sometimes referred to as blood sugar) to rise too high. Over time, having too much glucose in our blood can cause health problems, such as heart disease, nerve damage, eye problems and kidney disease. We can take steps to prevent diabetes or manage it.

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Track 2: Living with Diabetes

Being diagnosed with diabetes, or knowing someone who is diagnosed with the condition, may throw up many questions about how it fits into our daily life, from how it makes us feel to managing diabetes at work, or whilst we are driving. We can also get a lot of support and encouragement from other people. People respond in different ways to being diagnosed with diabetes – some to the extent that they feel like hiding it from everyone. We may feel embarrassed and uncertain about how they will react, but letting people know can mean that we receive more support and understanding.

Diabetes can occur in anyone. However, people who have close relatives with the disease are somewhat more likely to develop it. Other risk factors include obesity, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and physical inactivity. The risk of developing diabetes also increases as people grow older. People who are over 40 and overweight are more likely to develop diabetes, although the incidence of type 2 diabetes in adolescents is growing. Diabetes is more common among Native Americans, African Americans, Hispanic Americans and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders. 

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Track 3: Diabetes & Associated Complications

Diabetes is a group of diseases that result in too much sugar in the blood or high blood glucose.  Consistently high blood glucose levels can lead to serious diseases affecting the heart and blood vessels, eyes, kidneys, nerves and teeth. In addition, people with diabetes also have a higher risk of developing infections. In almost all high-income countries, diabetes is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease, blindness, kidney failure, and lower limb amputation.

Also, people who develop diabetes while pregnant (a condition called gestational diabetes) are more likely to develop full-blown diabetes later in life.

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Track 4: Types 1 v/s Type 2 Diabetes

Understanding diabetes starts with knowing the different types of diabetes and their key differences. The two most common types are type 1 and type 2.

In type 1 diabetes, the body makes little or no insulin due to an overactive immune system. People with type 1 diabetes must take insulin every day. Type 1 diabetes usually occurs in children and young adults but can also appear in older adults.

In type 2 diabetes, body prevents the insulin it does make from working right. Our body may make some insulin but not enough. Most people with diabetes—about 90% to 95%—have type 2. This kind of diabetes usually happens in people who are older, although even younger adults may be diagnosed with it. Type 2 diabetes also usually occurs in people who are overweight. In fact, about 8 out of 10 people with type 2 diabetes are overweight.

A third type of diabetes, gestational diabetes, is a temporary condition that occurs during pregnancy. It affects approximately 2 to 4 % of all pregnancies (in the non-Aboriginal population) and involves an increased risk of gestational diabetes.

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Track 5: Diabetes Pathophysiology

Diabetes occurs when there is a dis-balance between the demand and production of the hormone insulin. Type 2 diabetes is characterized by a combination of peripheral insulin resistance and inadequate insulin secretion by pancreatic beta cells. Insulin resistance, which has been attributed to elevated levels of free fatty acids and proinflammatory cytokines in plasma, leads to decreased glucose transport into muscle cells, elevated hepatic glucose production, and increased breakdown of fat. In a fed state, there is increased insulin secretion, causing glycolysis, glycogen storage, fatty acid synthesis/storage, and protein synthesis. After an overnight fast, there is low insulin and high glucagon that can cause glycogen breakdown, hepatic gluconeogenesis, and lipolysis. After a prolonged fast, there is extremely low insulin and low glucagon; this causes lipolysis to take over.  Lipids are the main fuel source. 

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Track 6: Endocrinology Aspect of Diabetes

The main glands of the endocrine system are the adrenal glands, ovaries and testicles, pancreas, pituitary gland and thyroid gland. These glands secrete hormones (chemical messengers) into the blood or lymph which have an effect on specific organs of the body.

The pancreas is really two glands that are intimately mixed together into one organ. The pancreas plays a part in two different organ systems, the endocrine system and the exocrine system. The endocrine system includes all the organs which produce hormones, chemicals which are delivered via the blood to help regulate our mood, growth, metabolism and reproduction. Two of the hormones produced by the pancreas are insulin and glucagon. The exocrine system is made up of a number of glands which release substances such as sweat (to the skin), saliva (in the mouth) or, in the case of the pancreas, digestive enzymes.

In type 1 diabetes, the beta cells that produce insulin are attacked by the body’s immune system. As more beta cells get killed off, the pancreas struggles to produce enough insulin to keep blood sugar levels down and the symptoms of diabetes begin to appear.

In type 2 diabetes, the body builds up resistance to insulin and more insulin is needed to bring down blood glucose levels. As a result the pancreas needs to produce more insulin than it would normally need to.

If the pancreas can no longer produce enough insulin to bring down sugar levels, the symptoms of diabetes will begin to appear. Type 2 diabetes comes on gradually and it can take up to years for symptoms to appear. Further development of type 2 diabetes can lead to loss of insulin producing beta cells from the pancreas which can lead to the need for insulin to be administered.

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Track 7: Prevention of Diabetes

Recent research does suggest, however, that there are some things one can do to prevent from type 2 diabetes.

If one has a family history or other risk factors for diabetes or if one has been diagnosed with prediabetes, there are a number of healthy living tips can be follow to prevent or delay the onset of diabetes. If someone has already been diagnosed with diabetes.

Many studies show that lifestyle changes, such as losing weight, eating healthy and increasing physical activity can dramatically reduce the progression of type 2 diabetes and are important to controlling type 1 diabetes. These lifestyle changes can help minimize other risk factors as well, such as high blood pressure and blood cholesterol, which can have a tremendous impact on people with diabetes.

In many instances, lifestyle changes must be complemented by a regimen of medications to control blood glucose levels, high blood pressure and cholesterol as well as to prevent heart attack and stroke.

By working with your health care team, you can set personal treatment goals, monitor your critical health numbers, and successfully manage diabetes while preventing complications from diabetes. Modest weight loss (5-10% of body weight) and modest physical activity (30 minutes a day) are recommended tasks. Making a few lifestyle changes can dramatically lower the chances of developing type 2 diabetes. The same changes can also lower the chances of developing heart disease and some cancers. Smoking and drinking try to quit.

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Track 8: What Should We Eat?

Taking steps to prevent and control diabetes doesn’t mean living in deprivation; it means eating a tasty, balanced diet that will also boost our energy and improve our mood. No one have to give up sweets entirely or resign our self to a lifetime of bland food. We can still take pleasure from meals without feeling hungry or deprived. Trying to prevent or control diabetes, the most important thing is to lose a weight. Focus on high fibre complex carbohydrates and do regularly yoga and physical exercise.

There are many myths about diabetes. We should try to go with real facts and have balanced diet with protein, carbohydrates and lipids. The keys to a healthy eating plan are:

o        Eat meals and snacks regularly (at planned times).

o        Eat about the same amount of food at each meal or snack.

o        Choose healthful foods to support a healthy weight and heart.

Best options are lean proteins low in saturated fat, like fish or turkey. Aim for two or three servings of seafood each week; some fish, like salmon, have the added benefit of containing heart healthy omega-3 fats. For a vegetarian protein source, experiment with the wide variety of beans. Nuts, which are protein and healthy fats powerhouses, are also a great choice. Whole grains such as wild rice, quinoa, and whole grain breads and cereals contain fiber, which is beneficial for digestive health. Greek yogurt is a healthy and versatile dairy option. Non-starchy vegetables such as leafy greens, broccoli, cauliflower, asparagus, and carrots are low in carbohydrates and high in fiber. Choose the monounsaturated fats found in avocados, almonds, and pecans or the polyunsaturated fats found in walnuts and sunflower oil, which can help to lower bad cholesterol.

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Track 9: Diabetes and Nephropathy

Nephropathy means kidney disease or damage. Diabetic nephropathy is damage to your kidneys caused by diabetes. In severe cases it can lead to kidney failure. Diabetes insipidus (DI) is defined as the passage of large volumes of dilute urine. It has the following 2 major forms: Central (neurogenic, pituitary, or neurohypophyseal) DI characterized by decreased secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH). Nephrogenic DI, characterized by decreased ability to concentrate urine because of resistance to ADH action in the kidney. Polyuria and nocturia are common symptoms in diabetes.

People with diabetes are at increased risk of renal atherosclerosis, urinary tract infections, papillary necrosis and glomerular lesions - eg, from basement membrane thickening and glomerulosclerosis.

Diabetic nephropathy may be diffuse or nodular (Kimmelstiel-Wilson lesion). The early stages cause an elevated glomerular filtration rate with enlarged kidneys but the principal feature of diabetic nephropathy is proteinuria. This develops insidiously, starting as intermittent microalbuminuria before progressing to constant proteinuria and occasionally nephrotic syndrome.

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Track 10: Diabetes and Associated Cardiac Abnormalities

As a result, the amount of glucose in the blood increases while the cells are starved of energy. Over time, high blood glucose levels damage nerves and blood vessels, leading to complications such as heart disease and stroke, the leading causes of death among people with diabetes. People with diabetes, particularly type 2 diabetes, have higher risks for developing cardiovascular diseases because of hypertension, abnormal cholesterol and high triglycerides, obesity, lack of physical activity, poorly controlled blood sugars, smoking and drinking.

One study shows that generation of people, including those with diabetes, to try to determine the health risk factors for developing heart disease. It showed that multiple health factors - including diabetes - could increase the possibility of developing heart disease. Aside from diabetes, other health problems associated with heart disease include high blood pressuresmoking, high cholesterol levels, and a family history of early heart disease.

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Track 11: Genetics of Diabetes

Type 1 and type 2 diabetes have different causes. Yet two factors are important in both. You inherit a predisposition to the disease then something in your environment triggers it. Genes alone are not enough. Identical twins have identical genes. Yet when one twin has type 1 diabetes, the other gets the disease at most only half the time. When one twin has type 2 diabetes, the other's risk is at most 3 in 4.

Type 2 diabetes runs in families. In general, if one has type 2 diabetes, the risk of his child getting diabetes is 1 in 7 if one was diagnosed before age 50 and 1 in 13 if one was diagnosed after age 50. It is believed that a large proportion of cases of type 1 diabetes result from the autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic ? cells, leading to complete dependence on exogenous insulin to regulate blood glucose levels. Type 1 diabetes is strongly clustered in families with an overall genetic risk ratio (the prevalence in siblings of a proband relative to the population prevalence) of approximately 15.

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Track 12: Diabetes and Today's Drug Market

The Global Market for Diabetes Management accounted for USD 40 billion in 2010 and is expected to attain a market size of around USD 114 billion following a growth rate of 13.5% CAGR. The major products in this market consists of glucose meters, test strips, lancets, continuous blood glucose meters, syringes, insulin pumps, insulin and other insulin delivery devices and anti-diabetic drugs. However, insulin, test strips and anti-diabetic drugs are the most revenue generating products.

While diabetes often cannot be cured, drug makers and biotech companies make glucose monitors, insulin delivery devices, and drug products to help manage the condition. It is estimated that the total market for diabetes products and related care is worth $92 billion in the U.S.

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Track 13: Modern Approaches towards Treatment

Treatment typically includes diet control, exercise, home blood glucose testing, and in some cases, oral medication and/or insulin. Approximately 40% of people with type 2 diabetes require insulin injections. Many people can keep their blood glucose in a healthy range without medications (either oral diabetes medications or insulin injections) if they lose weight and keep their weight down, are regularly physically active, and follow a meal plan that helps them keep portion sizes under control and helps them spread the amount of carbohydrate they eat at each meal throughout the day.

Eventually, however, many people with type 2 diabetes find that despite their best efforts, weight control, exercise and diet aren't enough to keep their blood glucose in a healthy range. Some people's insulin-producing cells just get tired out from having to produce more and more insulin because their cells are resistant to the effects of insulin. In this case one needs to take oral diabetes medications or insulin injections to manage blood glucose.

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Market Analysis Report of Diabetes

Diabetes is a group of diseases that result in too much sugar in the blood, or high blood glucose. Diabetes is a disease in which your blood glucose or blood sugar levels are too high. Glucose comes from the foods we eat. Insulin is a hormone that helps the glucose gets into our cells to give them energy. With type 1 diabetes, our body does not make insulin. With type 2 diabetes, the more common type, our body does not make or use insulin well. Without enough insulin, the glucose stays in our blood. We can also have prediabetes. This means that our blood sugar is higher than normal but not high enough to be called diabetes. Over time, having too much glucose in our blood can cause serious problems. It can damage our eyes, kidneys, and nerves. Diabetes can also cause heart diseases, stroke and even the need to remove a limb. Pregnant women can also get diabetes called gestational diabetes.

Diabetes is recognised as the world’s fastest growing chronic condition. The number of people with type 2 diabetes is growing in each country. In 2013, diabetes caused 5.1 million deaths globally. World Diabetes Day is celebrated on November 14 each year. This day engages millions of people worldwide in diabetes advocacy and awareness activities in response to growing concerns about the escalating health threat that diabetes now poses globally. World Health Day on April 7 will also be dedicated to raising awareness about diabetes.

The World Diabetes Foundation estimates that there will be 438 million people with diabetes by the year 2030. Oral anti-diabetics were the leading category of drugs in 2014 and showed a growth rate of 6.3% from the total global sales. The total sales for insulin products increased significantly as well. So the knowledge of diabetes is very important among people and there are many universities offering the course.

Universities Associated with Diabetes Research

University of Cambridge

·         Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

·         Stanford University

·         Yale University

·         University of California

·         Imperial College London

·         Florida International University College of Medicine

·         University of Melbourne

·         Harvard Medical School

·         Karolinska Institute

Associations Associated with Diabetes Research

To encourage, educate, update and train registered medical practitioners, dieticians, qualified nurses and other appropriately qualified paramedical personnel in the field of Diabetes various well-known societies/associations are working across the globe to efficiently prevent and combat the fatal disease.

·         World Diabetes Foundation

·         Canadian Diabetes Association

·         International Diabetes Federation

·         Diabetes Australia

·         Diabetes Indian Association

·         American Diabetes Association

·         Diabetes UK

·         Diabetes South Africa

·         Spanish Diabetes Society (Spain)

·         Swedish Diabetes Association

·         Korean Diabetes Association

Global Statistics:

In 2015, the International Diabetes Federation’s (IDF) Diabetes Atlas estimates that:

·         One in 11 adults has diabetes (415 million)

·         One in two (46.5%) adults with diabetes is undiagnosed

·         12% of global health expenditure is spent on diabetes (USD673 billion)

·         One in seven births is affected by gestational diabetes

·         Three-quarters (75%) of people with diabetes live in low- and middle-income countries

·         542,000 children have type 1 diabetes

·         Every six seconds a person dies from diabetes (5.0 million deaths)

By 2040, IDF estimates that:

·         One adult in ten will have diabetes (642 million)

·         Diabetes-related health expenditure will exceed USD 802 billion.

·         37% of all adults with diabetes live in the Western Pacific region (which includes Australia);

·         China with over 100 million people with diabetes (ranked highest number of people with diabetes),

·         Indonesia with 10 million people with diabetes (7th highest),

·         Japan with 7.2 million people with diabetes (9th highest).

 

The Western Pacific also has the country with the world’s highest prevalence of diabetes - in the Pacific Island nation of Tokelau where 30% of adult population has diabetes. Cambodia has the lowest at 3%.

The markets for diabetes care products can be segmented as either monitoring/testing products or therapeutics products. Testing products can be further segmented by analyte for glucose, ketones, and micro albumin/albumin. Therapeutic products can also be further segmented as insulin, oral hypoglycemic agents and drugs to treat diabetic complications. Drugs to treat diabetic complications can further be segmented into antihypertensive, lipid-lowering drugs (for both cholesterol and triglycerides), antiarrhythmic drugs and drugs to treat peripheral vascular diseases.

Anti-diabetic products include glucose meters, lancets, test strips, continuous blood glucose meters, insulin, insulin pumps, syringes and other insulin delivery devices and anti-diabetic drugs. The bulk of product revenues come from three segments - test strips, insulin and anti-diabetic drugs - which will remain the largest sources of product revenues over the next ten years. The most significant growth, however, will come from the nascent segment of continuous blood glucose monitors, which provide significantly added clinical benefit at only a modestly higher cost compared to standard blood glucose meters.

The bcc research includes that the global diabetes market should reach $155 billion by 2021 from $125 billion in 2016 at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 4.4%, from 2016 to 2021.

·         An overview of the global market for diabetes.

·         Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2015, estimates for 2016, and projections of CAGRs through 2021.

·         Analysis of the devices and instruments used in the diagnosis and monitoring of diabetes.

·         A close look at major forces contributing to the vigorous growth of the diabetes market.

·         Evaluation of other factors influencing the market such as health care policies, demographics, and the wider economic environment.

·         Discussion covering companies in the relevant pharmaceutical and medical industries through company profiles of many leading players in the field.

Top players in the global diabetes market are Novo Nordisk, Eli Lilly, Merck & Co., amongst others.

Why Brazil???

Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world by size and population. Although the Brazilian economy is growing rapidly, 15% of the population lives in absolute poverty – with no access to basic housing, nutrition and healthcare.

The Brazilian government has taken steps to tackle extreme poverty and the inequalities in health throughout the country by passing legislation to provide free medication for everyone suffering from high blood pressure or diabetes. The drugs are to be distributed through a nationwide network of budget pharmacies, where many medicines are already heavily subsidised.

About 33 million Brazilians have high blood pressure, and more than 7 million have diabetes. It is estimated that more than 80,000 deaths per year (10 every hour) are due to the disease.

Type 2 diabetes is a chronic, progressive condition that can lead to a variety of complications if not managed properly. The prevalence of this disease is rising worldwide and considered a major public health issue. Although many treatments are available, a lack of patient education and healthcare access can provide an obstacle to patients receiving proper disease management, particularly in countries such as Brazil.

Data has been assessed from the 2011 National Health and Wellness Survey (NHWS), a cross-sectional, representative, self-administered survey of adults in urban Brazil. Four per cent of people reported having been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Of these, 86 per cent did not know their glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level, which is the average level of blood sugar (glucose), over the previous three months. Of the people who were aware of their HbA1c levels, 60 per cent reported their levels were above 7 per cent, which means their diabetes was uncontrolled.

Brazil's public healthcare system (Sistema Unico de Saude, SUS) offers full coverage for every citizen. However, the quality of care is not high, so people in middle to high socioeconomic groups purchase private health insurance. The broad private health network that complements the public services represents approximately 25 to 30 per cent of the population. Almost 40 per cent of respondents who reported a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes claimed to have private insurance, and the rest have public insurance.

WHO shows the following data of Brazil:

Mortality

Number of diabetes deaths

                                            Males         

Females

Ages 30–69                                

15000

14900

Ages 70+                                     

16900

25900

Number of deaths attributable to high blood glucose

                                            Males         

Females  

Ages 30–69                                

24200

21100

Ages 70+                                     

25200

36100

Prevalence of diabetes and related risk factors

                                            Males         

Females  

Total

Diabetes

7.40%

8.80%

8.10%

Overweight

55.30%

53.20%

54.20%

Obesity

17.20%

22.90%

20.10%

Physical inactivity

24.90%

29.40%

27.20%

 

Today, diabetes takes more lives than AIDS and breast cancer combined -- claiming the life of 1 American every 3 minutes.  It is a leading cause of blindness, kidney failure, amputations, heart failure and stroke. 

Living with diabetes places an enormous emotional, physical and financial burden on the entire family. Annually, diabetes costs the American public more than $245 billion. 

The diabetes treatment market in the US comprises three related but distinct submarkets that address different aspects of the condition. Products in the US market are currently comprised of blood glucose monitors, lancets & test strips, continuous blood glucose monitors, insulin, insulin pumps, syringes, and other insulin delivery devices & anti-diabetic drugs. The most significant growth in this market (U.S.) is in continuous blood glucose meters, insulin pumps, and anti-diabetic drugs.

High blood sugar levels are linked to 3.7 million deaths around the world every year, according to WHO. Diabetes caused 1.5 million deaths in 2012. An additional 2.2 million deaths were caused by higher-than-optimal blood glucose, due to the increased risks of cardiovascular disease and other complications.

Importance and Scope:

Diabetes has increasingly become a lifestyle-related disease as it afflicts young and old. According to WHO Diabetes was estimated to affect 371 million people till the end of 2011in US. Whereas, new figures indicate that the number of people living with diabetes is expected to rise from 371 million in 2012 to 552 million by 2030. This indicates an urgent alarm for its management. As the number of patients grows across the globe, there has never been a stronger and more urgent need for therapeutic measures that arrest the growth of the disease and alleviate its secondary manifestations. In Type 1 diabetes total ?-cell loss occurs. In Type 2 diabetes, partial ?-cell loss occurs before diagnosis, and the progressive ?-cell loss during the life of the patient increases the severity of the disease. This addresses novel therapies for these deficiencies in clinical and preclinical evaluation.

Conclusion:

The estimated total economic cost of diagnosed diabetes in 2012 is $245 billion, a 41% increase from our previous estimate of $174 billion (in 2007 dollars).

This estimate highlights the substantial burden that diabetes imposes on society. Additional components of societal burden omitted from our study include intangibles from pain and suffering, resources from care provided by non-paid caregivers, and the burden associated with undiagnosed diabetes.

 


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